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Recently, scientists and mental health professionals decided to classify problem gambling as a behavioral addiction, the first of its kind, putting it in a category of disorders that also includes substance abuse.
The reason for this change comes from neuroscience research, which has shown that gambling addicts have a lot in common with drug and alcohol addicts, including changes in behavior and brain activity.
Gambling disorder refers to the uncontrollable urge to gamble, despite serious personal consequences. Problem gambling can impact a person's interpersonal relationships, financial situation, and physical and mental health.
Yet it has only recently been recognized as an addiction. Problem gambling was first classified as a psychiatric disorder in In , it was renamed "gambling disorder" and moved to the Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders category, which includes alcohol and drug addictions.
The decision to move gambling disorder alongside substance use disorders reflects a new understanding of the underlying commonalities between gambling and other addictions.
There is a growing body of neuroscience and psychology research suggesting problem gambling is similar to drug addiction. Many of the diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder share features with those for drug dependence, such as tolerance, withdrawal, repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut back or quit, and major interference in one's life.
Problem gamblers also report cravings and highs in response to gambling. Problem gambling also runs in families, alongside other addictions.
There may be some common genetic or brain differences in people who are more inclined to develop addictions, Petry says. For example, research shows that problem gamblers and drug addicts share many of the same genetic predispositions for impulsivity and reward-seeking behaviors.
Much of the research that supports classifying gambling disorder with other addictions comes from brain imaging studies and neurochemical tests.
These have revealed commonalities in the way that gambling and drugs of abuse act on the brain, and the way the brains of addicts respond to such cues.
The evidence indicates that gambling activates the brain's reward system in much the same way that a drug does. The ventral striatum, located deep inside the brain, has been termed the brain's reward center, and it's been implicated in reward processing as well as substance abuse.
When people with gambling disorder watch gambling videos or participate in simulated gambling while their brains are being scanned, scientists can see changes in blood flow in specific brain areas, indicating which areas are more active.
In one study, both problem gamblers and cocaine addicts watched videos related to their addictions while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI scanner.
Both groups showed diminished activation in the ventral striatum compared to healthy control participants. Problem gamblers also showed less ventral striatum activity during simulated gambling games and during the anticipation of monetary rewards than did people without gambling problems.
They argue that people prone to addiction have an underactive brain reward system and that such people are drawn to ways to stimulate their reward pathways, which can include the highs of drugs and gambling.
The other brain region that is often implicated in gambling and substance use disorders is the prefrontal cortex. This region is involved in decision-making, controlling impulsivity, and cognitive control.
Several studies have shown that problem gamblers and drug addicts both showed less activation of the prefrontal cortex in response to gambling-related cues.
Many studies have shown that people with gambling disorder are more impulsive than other people. They may have difficulty controlling their impulses due to reduced activation of the prefrontal cortex.
Despite these studies, it is still unclear whether gambling changes the brain. People might inherently have differences in brain structure and function that lead to gambling problems, or disordered gambling could cause changes in the brain — or some combination of the two could be possible.
In particular, we need to study people early in this trajectory, those who gamble recreationally but for whom it hasn't yet become a problem.
We need to follow them as some escalate their gambling into high-risk behavior and others do not. This kind of research could help identify who is at risk of developing gambling and substance abuse problems.
Scientists who study problem gambling hope that understanding the full complexity of the underlying neuroscience will eventually help parse out individual differences in the disorder.
The evidence from brain studies points to many shared characteristics of gambling disorder and other addictions. Problem gamblers resemble drug addicts, not only in their behavior, but also in their brains.
This has led to a new understanding of addiction: What used to be thought of as dependency on a chemical is now being defined as the repeated pursuit of a rewarding experience in spite of serious repercussions.
That experience could be the high from a drug or the high of winning a bet, because behaviors can be addictive, too.
Mary Bates Mary Bates is a freelance science writer interested in the brains and behavior of humans and other animals. For her graduate degree in psychology, she studied the echolocation abilities of big brown bats.
She has written for Psychology Today, Scientific American's Mind Matters blog, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and other print and online publications.
DeCaria CM, Hollander E, Grossman R, Wong CM. Diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of pathological gambling. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.
Vol 57 Suppl 8 : In July , the Czech Senate passed a law to address illegal trading in human tissue and ban "advertising of donation of human cells and tissues for money or similar advantages".
On Tuesday 21 April , a French judge ruled concerning the Paris exhibition of Our Body: The Universe Within , that exhibiting dead bodies for profit was a "violation of the respect owed to them".
Raingeard ordered the exhibition to close within 24 hours or face a fine of 20, euro over 26, dollars for each day it stayed open.
The judge also ordered authorities to seize the 17 bodies on display and all of the organs on display from an unknown number of people for proper burial.
Gunther Von Hagens issued a press statement denying any connection between the closed Chinese exhibition and his Body Worlds franchise.
The UK Parliament created legislation for exhibits of human remains, including plastinated bodies and body parts, in England and Wales under the Human Tissue Act This requires a licence to be granted by the Human Tissue Authority.
In March , the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry was granted such a licence to hold Body Worlds 4 and a further licence was granted to the exhibition in the O2, London, in The Human Tissue Scotland Act — which amended the Anatomy Act — covers Scotland.
Under the terms of this Act, licences for the handling of human remains, including display, must be granted directly by the Scottish Ministry: "Subsection 9: If the Scottish Ministers think it desirable to do so in the interests of education, training or research, they may grant a license to a person to publicly display the body or, as the case may be, the part, and a person is authorized under this subsection to so display a body or a part of a body if, at the time of the display he is licensed under this subsection.
Various organizations gave evidence to the Scottish Executive during the consultation process, including the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh , the Wellcome Trust , and the Museums Association.
Various legislation has been proposed and enacted in different American states. Most proposals concentrate on issues regarding the sale of human remains and the consent of the donors.
National legislation on consent and tissue donation issues is expressed in the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act  passed by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws which states that "an anatomical gift of a donor's body or part may be made during the life of the donor for the purpose of transplantation, therapy, research, or education", and prohibits trafficking in donated human organs for profit.
In early , former US Republican Representative W. Todd Akin proposed an amendment to the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of  to "make it unlawful for a person to import plastinated human remains into the United States.
California's proposed bill AB Ma , sponsored by Assemblywoman Fiona Ma ,  tried to "require exhibitors to get a county permit; to do so, they would have to prove to county health officials that the people whose cadavers were on display — or their next of kin — had consented".
Assembly Bill would have made California the first state to require such proof. The state of Florida prohibits the sale or purchase of human remains and "Authorizes certain science centers located in this state to transport plastinated bodies into, within, or out of this state and exhibit such bodies for the purpose of public education without the consent of this state's anatomical board if the science center notifies the board of any such transportation or exhibition, as well as the location and duration of any exhibition, at least 30 days before such transportation or exhibition".
In January , Rep. Marcus Oshiro introduced two bills prompted by presentation of the BODIES Exhibition in that state.
HB29 Relating to Dead Human Bodies would prohibit the commercial display of dead human bodies without a permit from the Department of Health.
In June , New York State Senate passed legislation regulating body exhibits. A bill that was sponsored by Senator Jim Alesi requires anyone showing an exhibit that uses real human bodies in New York museums to produce a permit detailing their origin.
Representative Mike Fleck's proposed bill would require evidence of informed consent from the decedent or relatives of all humans whose remains are put on display.
The state of Washington considered a bill that would "require written authorization to display human remains for a commercial purpose".
There have been several reports of corpses in the Body Worlds exhibit being prepared and shown without consent. That's a reasonable standard to apply.
In , two Russian doctors from the University of Novosibirsk were charged with illegally supplying von Hagens with 56 bodies, including convicts, homeless people, and mentally ill people, without consent from their relatives.
Consent is not regulated worldwide according to the same ethical standards, raising ethical concerns. No one will know for sure, because each plastinated corpse is made anonymous to protect its privacy.
He matched over donation forms to death certificates, but he did not match the paperwork to specific bodies von Hagens has on display. International trade experts have objected to the way in which bodies for commercial display are imported, because the way their categorization codes as "art collections" do not require Centers for Disease Control stamps or death certificates, both of which are required for medical cadavers.
This customs code encompasses "zoological, botanical, mineralogical or anatomical collections or items in such collections. In an ethical analysis, Thomas Hibbs, professor of ethics and culture at Baylor University , a private Baptist -affiliated institution, compared cadaver displays to pornography, in that they reduce the subject to "the manipulation of body parts stripped of any larger human significance.
In a lecture entitled "Plasti-Nation: How America was Won",  Lucia Tanassi, professor of medical ethics and anthropology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center , explored questions for ethicists regarding this new scientific frontier.
Tanassi called it provocative that ethics committees have contributed to the popularization of the exhibits without setting forth any process of a line of inquiry, pointing to an ethics report from the California Science Center.
As part of that review, bioethicist Hans Martin Sass was sent to Heidelberg to match donor consents with death certificates.
Concerns have been expressed about the educational aspects, especially the inclusion of these displays for school field trips. Louis Diocese Archbishop Raymond Burke strongly suggested that Catholic Schools avoid scheduling field trips, stating that parents, and not children, should retain the freedom of deciding whether or not their children will view the exhibit.
Christoph Reiners questions what effect the exhibits will have on the values of children attending for school field trips.
Religious groups, including representatives of the Catholic Church  and some Jewish rabbis  have objected to the display of human remains, stating that it is inconsistent with reverence towards the human body.
In , while promoting a display in the Hamburg Museum of Erotica , von Hagens announced his intention to create a sex plastinate.
In , the Bishop of Manchester launched a campaign  to coincide with the opening of Body Worlds in that city, accusing the exhibitors of being "body snatchers" and "robbing the NHS", arguing that donation of bodies for plastination would deprive the National Health Service of organs for transplant.
The site included a government petition calling for "a review of the law regarding the policies and practices of touring shows involving corpses".
Von Hagens has maintained tight copyright control over pictures of his exhibits. Visitors were not allowed to take pictures, and press photographers were required to sign restrictive agreements permitting only a single publication in a defined context, followed by a return of the copyright to Von Hagens.
Because of a similar agreement applied to sound bites O-Töne, in German a German press organization suggested that the press refrain from reporting about the exhibition in Munich in The Body Worlds website offers plastinated pieces for sale.
There are a wide range of products from plastinated fruit jewelry to entire humans. Although some of the pieces require purchasers to be a qualified user—those intending to use the pieces for "research, educational, medical or therapeutic purposes"  —many pieces, including animal testicles and baby chicks, require no authorization.
There are also extremely realistic plastinate impressions of human hearts and slices including one slice of copulating humans [ citation needed ] for sale to the general public.
The success of Body Worlds has given rise to several similar shows featuring plastinated cadavers, including BODIES Some of these contain exhibits very similar to von Hagens' plastinates; Von Hagens has asserted copyright protection, and has sued Body Exploration and Bodies Revealed.
The suits were based on a presumed copyright of certain positions of the bodies, but the counterparty asserts that the human body in its diversity cannot be copyrighted.
Such lawsuits  have not stopped the competition. While the Korean police in Seoul confiscated a few exhibits from Bodies Revealed ,  the exhibition went on successfully.
Several of the competing exhibitions have been organized by the publicly traded US company Premier Exhibitions. They started their first Bodies Revealed exhibition in Blackpool, England which ran from August through October In and the company opened their Bodies Revealed and BODIES The Exhibition exhibitions in Seoul, Tampa, Miami, New York City, and Seattle.
Other exhibition sites in were Mexico City; Atlanta, Georgia, US; London; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Unlike Body Worlds , none of the competing exhibitions or their suppliers have a body donation programme.
Dr Roy Glover, a spokesperson for BODIES The Exhibition said all their exhibits use unclaimed cadavers from China, a category which the Laogai Research Foundation has charged could include executed prisoners.
New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo commented: "Despite repeated denials, we now know that Premier itself cannot demonstrate the circumstances that led to the death of the individuals.
Nor is Premier able to establish that these people consented to their remains being used in this manner.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 25 February The Guardian.